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Min Guo Shi Qi Bao Ye Shi Liao Shang Hai Pian 民国时期报业史料 上海篇2021Kao, Yu-ya 高郁雅

The history of modern Shanghai newspapers can be roughly divided into four periods. The first period (1850 to 1895) witnessed their birth and initial development as Shanghai as a city began to take shape, marking the preliminary development phase of Shanghai newspapers. The second period (1895 to 1915) saw a breakthrough in development, with the support of democratic political movements and the protection of foreign concessions. This period solidified the development pattern of Shanghai newspapers, which became a necessity in the daily lives of the citizens. The third period (1915 to 1937) was characterized by comprehensive and stable development. The fourth period (1937 to 1949) experienced contraction and stagnation due to two significant wars: the outbreak of the Anti-Japanese War and the Chinese Civil War. During this time, freedom of speech was restricted, exacerbated by issues like inflation, imposing immense operational pressure on the newspaper industry. By 1949, with the change in the Chinese political landscape, commercial newspapers were placed under strict military control by the new regime, leading to an unprecedented depression in the newspaper industry.

This book compiles diverse historical materials, including archives from the Shanghai Municipal Archives, recollections of journalists, and articles from newspapers and magazines. It is divided into three main themes:

  1. Newspaper Industry Overview, encompassing the basic characteristics of Shanghai's newspaper industry, the history of major newspapers in early 20th century Shanghai, and the functioning of newspaper industry associations.

  2. Newspaper Staff, providing insights into various types of staff in newspapers, such as educational qualifications, working hours, efficiency, and salaries required by printing workers. The book also includes contracts for proofreaders at that time, shedding light on the requirements for proofreading work. Information about the treatment of newspaper staff can be referenced from a comparison table of employee benefits between Xinwen Bao and Shen Bao, detailing the number of employees in each department, work standards, and remuneration methods.

  3. News Editing and Reporting, covering information collection in newspapers, and regulations related to editing news. It provides a detailed introduction to the production process of newspapers, including gathering news, editing, printing, and distribution, all meticulously documented.

近代上海報刊的歷史,大致可分為四個時期。第一個時期(1850年至1895年)誕生與初步發展,隨著上海都市的形成,上海報刊進入初步發展時期。第二個時期(1895年至1915年)突破性的發展,依靠著民主政治運動與外國租界的庇蔭,上海報刊發展格局奠定,報刊已成市民日常生活必需品。第三個時期(1915年至1937年)全面穩定的發展。第四個時期(1937年至1949年)萎縮與停滯,此時期發生了兩次的戰爭:抗戰爆發與國共內戰,致使言論空間遭到限縮,加上通貨膨脹問題,帶給報業極大的營運壓力,至1949年中國政局轉易,商業報紙遭到新政權軍管封閉,報界出現空前的蕭條。

本書收集史料種類多元,如上海市檔案館檔案、報人回憶、報章雜誌文章等,分為三個主題:

壹、報業概況,包含上海報業的基本特色、民初上海各大報的歷史、報業公會的運作。

貳、報館職工,可知報館各類職工的相關訊息,像是報館對印刷工學歷、工作時數、效能、薪資的要求,也收錄了當時校對員工的合約,了解報館對校對工作的要求。有關報館員工的待遇問題,可參考新聞報與申報兩報的員工待遇比較表,包括報館職工每部門的人數、工作標準與計薪方式,皆有完整記錄。

參、新聞編採,包含報館收集訊息、編輯新聞的相關規定,詳盡介紹從採訪、編輯、印刷、發行,報紙的出產環節均一一收錄。

Guo Min Dang De Xin Wen Xuan Chuan Yu Zhan Hou Zhong Guo Zheng Ju Bian Dong 国民党的新闻宣传与战后中国政局变动2005Kao, Yu-ya 高郁雅

国民党为何失去中国大陆及其政权,是几乎所有研究中国近现代史的学者所面临的根本问题。从抗日胜利到失去大陆,仅仅过去了四年多一点的时间。为何在此之前,日本尽管拥有压倒性的优势,却用了八年时间仍无法征服国民党统治下的中国?反过来说,处于绝对劣势的中国共产党是如何在四年内挑战并成功战胜国民党的呢?此前官方的解释主要强调当时影响国民党的不利因素,如指责苏联对中共的支持、美国对国民党政府的支持不足、中共成功的战略运用,以及和平谈判失败的影响。另一方面,国外学者则关注国民党内部的结构性问题,强调党内派系斗争和地区军阀的抵抗,削弱了执政基础,导致民意流失。

In reality, during the period of losing the mainland, the KMT's propaganda played a crucial role. Despite the KMT gradually finding itself in a disadvantaged position in terms of military, politics, economy, and diplomacy after the war, the dissemination of these defeats would not have been so rapid without the CCP's influential propaganda efforts. Faced with the formidable propaganda offensive by the CCP, the KMT's party-controlled news system was unable to mount a strong counterattack. In fact, excessive news control on the KMT's part became a source of the turn towards privately-owned newspapers. What problems did the KMT's propaganda face at that time? How does the failure in propaganda relate to the shift in political power between the KMT and the CCP? These critical questions have not been addressed in the academic community in the past. This article attempts to break new ground by examining the transformation of China's post-war political situation from the perspective of propaganda.

国民党为什么失去大陆现代政治,几乎是所有研究中国史的必须学者的问题。从抗战胜利到大陆失守,相比不到四年多的时间,在此之前,日本以绝对的优势费时八年尚不能征服国民党统治下的中国?而中共却以绝对的劣势于四年间向国民党挑战成功?关于这个问题,过去官方蔗多针对当时非国民党的主要政党申论,指责苏俄的支持中共、美国的未能全力支持国民政府、中共的策略运用成功,及和谈误国等;外籍学者则直接从国民党本身的结构问题着眼,认为党内派系斗争与地方军阀的反动摇了执政根基,造成民众的损失青睐。

其实,在失去大陆政权的似历史中,国民党的新闻宣传具有关键地位。战后国民党虽然在军事、政治、经济、学术上逐渐处于不利地位,但若非中共在新闻宣传上的推波助澜,这些挫败的扩散效应也至于如此迅猛。面对凌厉的新闻宣传势攻势,国民党的党体新闻却无力做出反应,甚至超高的中共新闻控制反成为报纸左转的骨髓。当时国民党的新闻宣传究竟是什么如此重要的问题过去学界尚无人论及,论文尝试突破,从新闻宣传角度观察战后中国政局的转变。

Gui Tai Bao Shang Hai Xin Wen Bao Yan Jiu 柜台报:上海《新闻报》研究2015Kao, Yu-ya 高郁雅
Shang Hai Yong An Gong Si De Chan Sheng Fa Zhan He Gai Zao 上海永安公司的产生、发展和改造1981Shang Hai She Hui Ke Xue Yuan Jing Ji Yan Jiu Suo 上海社会科学院经济研究所

Shanghai Wing On Department Store was the largest and fairly capable 'Universal' department store in old China, enjoying a certain reputation both domestically and internationally. It was initiated by Australian Chinese immigrants Guo Le and Guo Quan, among others. Established in 1918 and continuing until the liberation, it underwent a process of public-private partnership. Over nearly forty years of history, it held a significant position and influence in China's national capitalist commercial economy. Throughout its long-standing commercial activities, Wing On Department Store accumulated considerable experience in capitalist business management. Leveraging this experience, it managed to survive and achieve some development amidst the oppression from imperialism and bureaucratic capital, both domestically and internationally. However, under the historical conditions of old China, it eventually declined from its peak and faced extremely challenging circumstances, ultimately succumbing to the imminent fate of bankruptcy. We believe that a detailed analysis of this typical commercial enterprise is beneficial for further studying China's national capitalist economy and the national bourgeoisie.

上海永安公司是旧中国规模最大、有相当经营能力并曾在当时国内外享有一定声誉的“环球”百货公司,它由澳洲华侨郭乐、郭泉兄弟等人发起创设,从1918年正式开幕到解放后实行公私合营,经历了近四十年的历史进程,它在我国民族资本主义商业经济中具有一定的影响和地位。上海永安公司在长时期的商业活动中,积累了比较丰富的资本主义经营管理的经验,并借助于此,得以在帝国主义和官僚资本内外压迫的夹缝中生存和获得某些发展。但是在旧中国的历史条件下,它终于由盛转衰,处境十分艰难,最终无法逃脱濒于破产的历史命运。我们认为,具体剖析这一典型的商业企业,对于进一步研究我国民族资本主义经济和民族资产阶级是有益处的。

He You Zhi Hua Lao Shang Hai 贺友直画老上海2010He,Youzhi 贺友直

石库门、百乐门、黄包车,卖报童、卖花女、扦脚工……这些场景人物都为“老上海”所熟谙。“十一”国庆黄金周期间,著名国画家、连环画界泰斗贺友直先生,近年所作的近百幅反映老上海风土人情的白描国画作品,重现老上海风貌,打开无数“老上海”的记忆之门。

"Shikumen, Balemen, Huangbaoche, newspaper vendors, flower sellers, shoemakers... These scenes and characters are familiar to those who know 'Old Shanghai.' During the Golden Week of the National Day holiday in October, Mr. He Youzhi, a famous traditional Chinese painter and a luminary in the world of comic strips, has created nearly a hundred meticulous Chinese paintings depicting the customs and traditions of old Shanghai in recent years. These works reanimate the old Shanghai style, unlocking the memories of countless 'Old Shanghai'.

Xian Dai Shang Hai Da Shi Ji 现代上海大事记1996Ren, Jianshu 任建树

The compilation of 'Chronicles of Modern Shanghai' aims not only to record significant events and important matters in modern Shanghai encompassing politics, economy, military, culture, education, healthcare, religious beliefs, citizen life, social customs, and natural phenomena, but also to provide a brief account of nationwide events and events in other regions influenced by Shanghai. This allows readers to grasp the background and context of many events in modern Shanghai, facilitating a clearer understanding and convenient retrieval. Moreover, this historical account holds certain enlightening and instructive value for Shanghai, situated at the crossroads of the century, in its choices and endeavors toward constructing both socialist spiritual and material civilization.

编写《现代上海大事记》,不仅是为了记载现代上海的政治、经济、军事、文化、教育、卫生,乃至宗教信仰、市民生活、社会风俗,以及自然变异等诸方面的大事、要事,并简要记述发生在外地的全国性大事与外地因受上海影响而发生的事件,使读者对现代上海的诸多事件能够掌握来龙去脉,有比较清晰的了解和检索的方便。而且更因为这段历史进程对上海处在世纪之交的选择,对建设社会主义精神文明和物质文明,具有一定的启迪和借鉴。

Wu Si Yun Dong Zai Shang Hai Shi Liao Xuan Ji 五四运动在上海史料选辑1960Shang Hai She Hui Ke Xue Yuan Li Shi Yan Jiu Suo 上海社会科学院历史研究所

To commemorate the 60th anniversary of the great May Fourth Movement, the Shanghai People's Publishing House recently reissued the 'Compilation of Historical Materials on the May Fourth Movement in Shanghai,' edited by the History Research Institute of the Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences (hereafter referred to as the 'Compilation'). When news of the May Fourth Movement breaking out in Beijing reached Shanghai, the people of Shanghai immediately responded fervently. The students of Shanghai were the first to launch patriotic activities in support of the Beijing students. Subsequently, various sectors and political groups in Shanghai issued appeals, unanimously supporting the patriotic actions of Beijing students and demanding the rejection of the 'Treaty of Versailles,' and the stern punishment of traitors like Cao, Lu, and Zhang. The 'Compilation' extensively portrays and introduces the National Assembly convened by the people of Shanghai, demonstrations, the establishment of the 'Shanghai Student Union' leading the student movement, and the promotion of boycotting Japanese goods by the 'Advocacy of Domestic Goods Association' and 'Open-Air Propaganda Team,' among other actions, in practical support and endorsement of the patriotic actions of Beijing students. These historical materials provide a vivid depiction of the intense mass struggle during that period. It's worth noting that the 'Compilation' also collected materials on the struggle of the people of Shanghai against the comprador bourgeoisie represented by Yu Qiaqing and Zhu Baosan. The comprador bourgeoisie in China were imperialist lackeys, the arch-enemies of the Chinese people. Therefore, at the crucial historical moment of May Fourth, they undoubtedly emerged to sabotage the righteous patriotic struggle of the Chinese people and serve their imperialist masters. The 'Compilation' effectively exposes the vile actions and deeds perpetrated by the comprador bourgeoisie, led by Yu Qiaqing, during the 'Three Abstentions' movement and struggle in Shanghai. After the June Third incident, the workers, students, and business community of Shanghai bravely conducted the 'Three Abstentions' movement, which included strikes, class boycotts, and market closures. Particularly, the political general strike by the working class in Shanghai played a decisive role in achieving the movement's victory. The 'Compilation' contains numerous materials reflecting this aspect. For instance, in addition to going on strike, workers from the Xinji Machine Factory in Shanghai built a wooden arch near the factory entrance inscribed with the words 'Do Not Forget the National Humiliation' to motivate people to persist in the 'Three Abstentions' struggle. The struggle of shop employees was also resolute during this time. A shop employee on Henan Road once wrote in his own blood and posted a sign on the store's door with twelve big characters: 'As long as the students are detained, this store will remain closed.' Many shops had slogans posted outside: 'The nation is on the verge of destruction, no interest in business,' 'Stop business to save detained students,' and similar slogans, indicating the determination to carry the 'Three Abstentions' struggle to the end. The materials collected in the 'Compilation' span from the outbreak of the May Fourth Movement to the establishment of the Communist groups in Shanghai during that period. They have been carefully categorized based on their different natures. Comrade Mao Zedong said: 'The May Fourth Movement occurred under the call of the revolutionary movement of the world at that time, under the call of the Russian Revolution, and under the call of Lenin.' Therefore, the 'Compilation' first utilizes important writings by communist intellectuals, introducing the October Socialist Revolution in Russia and Marxist publications. Additionally, a significant portion of the historical materials in the 'Compilation' is selected from bourgeois newspapers published in Shanghai at that time. However, bourgeois newspaper reports inevitably carry their class biases, making them flawed as historical materials. Furthermore, the 'Compilation' also includes selected opposing materials from relevant archives of the country, annual reports of the Shanghai Public Works Department, and foreign-language newspapers in Shanghai. Through these historical materials, we can gain an understanding of the historical panorama of that time from various perspectives—positive, lateral, and opposing. The 'Compilation' features over forty finely printed historical photographs at the beginning of the book. These include photographs taken at that time and physical images, featuring comrades Li Dazhao, Mao Zedong, Zhou Sili during the May Fourth period, as well as copperplate photographs of 'New Youth,' 'Weekly Review,' 'Xiangjiang Review,' and historical images of the heroic struggle of the Shanghai people during the May Fourth period. They are valuable materials for studying the May Fourth Movement.

为了纪念伟大的五四运动六十周年,上海人民出版社最近重版了上海社会科学院历史研究所编辑的《五四运动在上海史料选辑》(以下简称《选辑》)。当五四运动在北京爆发的消息传到上海后,上海人民立即热烈响应。上海学生首先开展声援北京学生的爱国活动,接着上海各阶层、各政治团体也纷纷发出通电,一致声援北京学生的爱国行动,坚决要求拒签“巴黎和约”,严惩曹、陆、章等卖国贼。《选辑》用较大的篇幅反映和介绍了上海各界人民召开国民大会,举行示威游行,成立领导学生运动的“上海学联”和宣传抵制日货的“劝用国货会’、“露天宣讲团’等等,以实际行动支持和声援北京学生的爱国行动。这些历史资料,为我们提供了一幅生动的如火如茶的群众斗争的历史场面。这里值得一提的是,《选辑》还搜集了上海人民与大买办虞洽卿、朱葆三的斗争。中国的大买办阶级是帝国主义豢养的走狗,是中国人民的死敌,因此,在“五四’这一关键历史时刻,他们必然会跳出来破坏中国人民正义的爱国斗争,为其帝国主义主子效犬马之力。以虞洽卿为首的大买办阶级在上海的“三罢,斗争中干尽了坏事和丑事,《选辑》在这方面也以大量令人信服的材料进行了揭露。“六三”以后上海工人、学生、商界英勇地举行了罢工、罢课、罢市的“三罢,斗争,其中特别是上海工人阶级的政治性大罢工,对争取运动的胜利起了决定性的作用。《选辑》中反映这方面的材料也比较多.例如求新机器厂工人除了进行罢工外,还在厂附近的街口搭建了一座铁木牌楼,上书“毋忘国耻”,以此来激励人们把“三罢”斗争进行到底。当时店员工人的斗争也极坚决,河南路有一店员曾破指血书“学生一日不放,本店一日不开,十二个大字贴于商店门口。许多商店门前贴着标语:“国家将亡,无心营业”,“被拘学生,停市挽救”等标语,表示了要将“三罢’斗争进行到底的决心。《选辑》所收资料是从五四运动爆发到上海共产主义小组成立这一期间的历史资料,并根据不同性质分门别类地加以选编。毛泽东同志说:“五四运动是在当时世界革命号召之下,是在俄国革命号召之下,是在列宁号召之下发生的。”所以《选辑》首先采用了共产主义知识分子的重要论著,介绍俄国十月社会主义革命和马克思主义的报刊;其次,《选辑》中有一大部分历史资料是从当时在上海出版的资产阶级报纸中选录出来的,但资产阶级报纸的报道必然有其阶级的偏见,因此,作为史料来说是有其缺陷的。另外,《选辑》还从有关国家的档案、上海公共租界工部局年报和上海的外文报纸中选录了个别反面资料。我们从这些历史资料中可以从正面、侧面和反面看出当时的历史概貌。《选辑》书首的四十余张印刷精良的历史照片,是当时摄影的和实物的照片,其中有李大钊、毛泽东、周思来同志在“五四”时期的历史照片和《新青年》、《每周评论》、《湘江评论》铜版照片以及上海人民在五四时期英勇斗争的历史图片。它们都是研究五四运动的珍贵资料。

Qing Mo Min Chu De Jin Yan Yun Dong He Wan Guo Jin Yan Hui 清末民初的禁烟运动和万国禁烟会1996Shanghai Municipal Archives 上海市档案馆

Drug abuse is a hot issue that has garnered widespread attention in today's international society. The United Nations has a dedicated anti-drug agency responsible for coordinating global anti-drug efforts, and most countries have specialized anti-drug agencies. Due to the serious harm of drug proliferation to individuals, families, societies, and nations, strict controls and severe punishment for drug-related crimes are implemented by governments of various countries. The Opium Wars from 1840 to 1842 led China into a semi-colonial and semi-feudal state. At that time, opium abuse was rampant, causing many families to be impoverished and torn apart. Pressured by international public opinion and the rising anti-smoking sentiment domestically, the Qing government issued a series of anti-smoking decrees and launched anti-smoking campaigns nationwide, with the most representative being Lin Zexu's "Opium Destruction in Humen." However, due to political corruption, the declining national strength, and the people's suffering during the Qing Dynasty, the harm of opium remained unresolved despite the efforts to ban it. It was only after the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, under the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party, that the Chinese people swiftly eradicated opium within a few years, creating a miracle in the history of global drug prohibition. However, in the late 1970s, international drug trafficking groups, primarily from the "Golden Triangle" region, began to infiltrate drugs into China's southwestern border, rekindling drug-related crimes. This raised high concerns within the Chinese government, and the Central Committee and the State Council took a series of comprehensive and effective measures. Significant achievements were made in drug control, and China's reputation in the international drug control arena continued to rise.

This book, compiled and published by the Shanghai Anti-Drug Working Group Office and the Shanghai Archives, reflects a period of anti-smoking history in China from before the Opium Wars to 1926. It is rich in content and based on solid historical evidence. It holds positive value for the study of modern Chinese history, especially the history of drug prohibition both internationally and domestically. Moreover, the book provides vivid historical material for our anti-drug propaganda efforts. We believe it will be welcomed by a wide range of readers.

毒品是引起当今国际社会广泛关注的热点问题。联合国设有专门的禁毒署,负责协调全球的禁毒事务,大多数国家都设有禁毒的专门机构。由于毒品泛滥对个人、家庭、社会、民族都具有严重的危害性,因此,无论是哪个国家、哪届政府对毒品都加以了严格的管制,对毒品犯罪都施以严刑。1840-1842年的鸦片战争使中国沦为半殖民地、半封建的国家。那时烟毒泛滥,不少家庭倾家荡产、家破人亡。当时的清朝政府迫于国际舆论的压力和国内禁烟呼声的高涨,下达了一些列禁烟诏令章程,在全国各地开展了禁烟运动,其中最具代表性的是爱国志士林则徐的“虎门销烟”。但是,由于清朝政府政治腐败,国力衰落,民不聊生,烟毒之害禁而不绝。只是到了1949年中华人民共和国成立之后,在中国共产党的领导下,发动人民群众,在短短的几年里迅速禁绝了烟毒,在世界禁毒史上创造了一个奇迹。但是,到了七十年代末国际贩毒集团(主要是“金三角地区”)开始向我国西南边境进行毒品渗透活动,毒品犯罪又死灰复燃。对此,引起我国政府的高度重视,党中央、国务院采取了一系列综合有效的措施,禁毒工作取得了显著的成绩,我国在国际禁毒领域的声誉不断提高。

这本由上海市禁毒工作领导小组办公室和上海市档案馆编纂出版的书,反映了我国鸦片战争前后至1926年前的一段禁烟历史,内容丰富,史料翔实。这对研究我国近代史,特别是研究国际国内的禁毒史都有积极的价值。同时,这本书也为我们开展禁毒宣传工作提供了一份生动的历史材料,相信它一定会受到广大读者的欢迎。

Wu Sa Yun Dong Shi Liao Di Yi Juan 五卅运动史料(第一卷)1981Shang Hai She Hui Ke Xue Yuan Li Shi Yan Jiu Suo 上海社会科学院历史研究所

As early as March 1962, the History Institute of the Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences, following the instructions of the Shanghai Municipal Committee of the Chinese Communist Party, began to organize efforts to compile historical materials on the May Thirtieth Movement. Within three years, a large amount of data was accumulated. Due to the influence of the Cultural Revolution, this work was halted for more than a decade and only resumed in 1978, gradually compiling and publishing the results. 'Historical Materials of the May Thirtieth Movement' is divided into three volumes, published by Shanghai People's Publishing House in November 1981, August 1986, and December 2005, with a total word count of 2.12 million. It is the first relatively systematic collection of materials on the May Thirtieth Movement after the founding of the People's Republic of China.

In terms of content, it can be divided into five major parts:

  1. Important works, memories, and historical documents.
  2. From the February strikes to the outbreak of the May Thirtieth Movement.
  3. Activities of various classes and groups in Shanghai during the May Thirtieth Movement.
  4. The spread of the May Thirtieth Movement nationwide, overseas Chinese, and international support.
  5. The repression and sabotage of the May Thirtieth Movement by imperialism and warlord governments.

The book draws extensively from a wide range of sources, including more than a dozen Chinese and foreign newspapers such as 'Rehe Daily,' 'Republic of China Daily,' 'Shen Bao,' 'Sin Wan Pao ,' 'The China Press,' and 'North China Daily Herald,' as well as more than forty Chinese and foreign journals such as 'Xiangdao,' 'China Youth,' 'Shanghai General Trade Union Daily,' 'Blood Tide Daily,' 'National News Weekly,' 'Illustrated Times,' 'Militzer's Review,' and 'China Economic Monthly,' as well as relevant books and archives.

早在1962年3月,上海社会科学院历史研究所就秉承中共上海市委的指示,开始组织力量编纂五卅运动的史料,3年间便积累了大量的资料。由于“文革”的影响,该工作停顿了十多年,直到1978年才重上轨道,并将成果陆续汇编出版。《五卅运动史料》分为3卷,分别由上海人民出版社出版于1981年11月、1986年8月、2005年12月,总字数达212万,是为建国后第一部较为系统的五卅运动资料书。若以内容划分,则可分为五大部分,即:一、重要论著、回忆和历史文件;二、从二月罢工到五卅运动的爆发;三、五卅运动中上海各阶级、各团体的活动;四、五卅运动在全国各地的展开、侨胞和国际支援;五、帝国主义、军阀政府对五卅运动的镇压和破坏。 该书取材广泛,包括《热血日报》、《民国日报》、《申报》、《新闻报》、《大陆报》、《字林西报》等十几种中外文报纸和《向导》、《中国青年》、《上海总工会日刊》、《血潮日报》、《国闻周报》、《图画时报》、《密勒氏评论报》、《中国经济月刊》等四十余种中外文期刊,以及相关书籍、档案。

Wu Sa Yun Dong Shi Liao Di Er Juan 五卅运动史料(第二卷)1986Shang Hai She Hui Ke Xue Yuan Li Shi Yan Jiu Suo 上海社会科学院历史研究所

As early as March 1962, the History Institute of the Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences, following the instructions of the Shanghai Municipal Committee of the Chinese Communist Party, began to organize efforts to compile historical materials on the May Thirtieth Movement. Within three years, a large amount of data was accumulated. Due to the influence of the Cultural Revolution, this work was halted for more than a decade and only resumed in 1978, gradually compiling and publishing the results. 'Historical Materials of the May Thirtieth Movement' is divided into three volumes, published by Shanghai People's Publishing House in November 1981, August 1986, and December 2005, with a total word count of 2.12 million. It is the first relatively systematic collection of materials on the May Thirtieth Movement after the founding of the People's Republic of China.

In terms of content, it can be divided into five major parts:

  1. Important works, memories, and historical documents.
  2. From the February strikes to the outbreak of the May Thirtieth Movement.
  3. Activities of various classes and groups in Shanghai during the May Thirtieth Movement.
  4. The spread of the May Thirtieth Movement nationwide, overseas Chinese, and international support.
  5. The repression and sabotage of the May Thirtieth Movement by imperialism and warlord governments.

The book draws extensively from a wide range of sources, including more than a dozen Chinese and foreign newspapers such as 'Rehe Daily,' 'Republic of China Daily,' 'Shen Bao,' 'Sin Wan Pao ,' 'The China Press,' and 'North China Daily Herald,' as well as more than forty Chinese and foreign journals such as 'Xiangdao,' 'China Youth,' 'Shanghai General Trade Union Daily,' 'Blood Tide Daily,' 'National News Weekly,' 'Illustrated Times,' 'Militzer's Review,' and 'China Economic Monthly,' as well as relevant books and archives.

早在1962年3月,上海社会科学院历史研究所就秉承中共上海市委的指示,开始组织力量编纂五卅运动的史料,3年间便积累了大量的资料。由于“文革”的影响,该工作停顿了十多年,直到1978年才重上轨道,并将成果陆续汇编出版。《五卅运动史料》分为3卷,分别由上海人民出版社出版于1981年11月、1986年8月、2005年12月,总字数达212万,是为建国后第一部较为系统的五卅运动资料书。若以内容划分,则可分为五大部分,即:一、重要论著、回忆和历史文件;二、从二月罢工到五卅运动的爆发;三、五卅运动中上海各阶级、各团体的活动;四、五卅运动在全国各地的展开、侨胞和国际支援;五、帝国主义、军阀政府对五卅运动的镇压和破坏。 该书取材广泛,包括《热血日报》、《民国日报》、《申报》、《新闻报》、《大陆报》、《字林西报》等十几种中外文报纸和《向导》、《中国青年》、《上海总工会日刊》、《血潮日报》、《国闻周报》、《图画时报》、《密勒氏评论报》、《中国经济月刊》等四十余种中外文期刊,以及相关书籍、档案。

Wu Sa Yun Dong Shi Liao Di San Juan 五卅运动史料(第三卷)2005Shang Hai She Hui Ke Xue Yuan Li Shi Yan Jiu Suo 上海社会科学院历史研究所

The materials compiled in this volume constitute the fourth part of 'Historical Materials of the May Thirtieth Movement': the development of the May Thirtieth Movement across the country, support from overseas Chinese and the international community; and the fifth part: the repression and sabotage of the May Thirtieth Movement by imperialism and warlord governments.

本卷所辑资料是《五卅运动史料》的第四部分:五卅运动在全国各地的开展、侨胞和国际支援;第五部分:帝国主义、军阀政府对五卅运动的镇压与破坏。

Jiu Shang Hai De Zheng Quan Jiao Yi Suo 旧上海的证券交易所1992Shanghai Municipal Archives 上海市档案馆

This compilation of archival historical materials is a collection from the Shanghai Commodity Exchange and the Shanghai Stock Exchange, mainly selected from the archival collections of the Shanghai Municipal Archives and other relevant collections. The Shanghai Commodity Exchange was initiated in early 1917 and officially established in 1920, making it the earliest comprehensive exchange established in China. The selected archives in this compilation reflect the establishment and relevant operational activities of the exchange, providing primary source materials for studying the securities and commodity trading activities at that time. The mention of Zhang Jingjiang and Chiang Kai-shek's involvement in brokering securities and commodities trading at the exchange in the early 1920s is an issue of significant interest in historical studies. The China Second Historical Archives generously released archives and other historical materials related to this aspect, greatly enhancing the content of this book, and we express our gratitude for this. The Shanghai Stock Exchange was established by the Nationalist government after the victory of the Anti-Japanese War with the aim of promoting enterprise investment, facilitating economic rehabilitation, establishing a sound securities market, and supporting industrial and commercial enterprises. It commenced operations in September 1946, overseeing securities trading throughout the city and being the 'sole securities trading market' in China at that time, occupying a significant position in the socio-economic life of the period. In addition, we have selected various materials from relevant archives and old newspapers and periodicals as appendices. These are important historical materials for a comprehensive understanding and research of the securities industry in old Shanghai and even old China. We believe they offer valuable insights for the recently recovering securities market today.

本辑档案史料汇编,系上海证券物品交易所与上海证券交易所的合集,主要选自上海市档案馆所藏上海证券物品交易所全宗及其他有关全宗。上海证券物品交易所,发起于1917年初,正式创设于1920年,是我国创办最早的一家综合性交易所。本辑所选档案,反映了该所创建经过以及有关经营活动,是研究当时证券、物品交易活动的第一手材料。内中述及的20年代初张静江、蒋介石等在该所经纪证券物品交易一事,更是史学界颇为关注的问题。中国第二历史档案馆概允公布这方面的档案及其他史料,使 本书增色不少,在此谨表谢意。上海证券交易所,系抗战胜利后国民党当局为“提倡企业投资,促进经济复员,建立健全证券市场,扶助工商企业”而授意上海金融界组设的,开业于1946年9月,统辖全市的证券交易,这也是那时中国“唯一之证券交易市场”,在当时社会经济生活中占有重要一席。此外,我们还从有关档案、旧报刊中选取若干资料,作为附录,这些都是全面了解和研究旧上海乃至旧中国证券事业的重要史料,相信对今天复苏不久的证券市场也不无可供借鉴之处。

Shang Hai Fu Nv Zhi 上海妇女志2000Shang Hai Fu Nv Zhi Bian Zuan Wei Yuan Hui 《上海妇女志》编纂委员会

Shanghai is the cradle of the Chinese working class and the largest economic center in China. It is also a place where female workers and educated women are relatively concentrated. For a long time, Shanghai women have been striving for self-improvement and unity. In the New Democratic Revolution and the Socialist Revolution and construction, they played the role of the 'half of the sky.' Since the reform and opening up, Shanghai women have displayed a new demeanor of self-respect, self-improvement, and active progress. They have embraced an open mindset towards the whole country and the world, a dedication to work, and a spirit of contributing to society. They have been active in various fields of political, economic, and social life, producing a group of contemporary female heroes embodying the unique charm of Shanghai women, earning praise and admiration from society.

The 'Shanghai Women's Chronicles' comprehensively and systematically reflect the history and current situation of Shanghai women. It not only enriches the cultural treasury of local chronicles, helping us understand the situation of Shanghai women, but also serves as a positive influence for us to understand Marxist views on women, implement the basic state policy of gender equality, and promote the development and progress of Shanghai women.

The progress of women is a symbol of social progress. Respecting and protecting women is the moral trend that a civilized society should follow. We hope that the whole society will care about women's work, effectively safeguard the equal status and rights of women in national politics, economics, and social life, and create better conditions for their participation in social production and various activities. Women's federations and women's organizations at all levels should listen to the voices of women, do their best to alleviate their worries, educate and unite women from all walks of life, promote the spirit of 'self-respect, self-confidence, self-reliance, and self-strengthening,' actively engage in reform and opening up and modernization, fully utilize their intelligence and wisdom, and further play the role of the 'half of the sky.

上海是中国工人阶级的摇篮和中国最大的经济中心城市,也是女职工和知识妇女较为集中的地方。长期以来,上海妇女自强不息,团结奋斗,在新民主主义革命和社会主义革命与建设中,都发挥了“半边天”的作用。改革开放以来,上海妇女更以自尊自强、积极进取的崭新风貌,面向全国、走向世界的开放意识,爱岗敬业、报效社会的奉献精神,活跃在政治、经济、社会生活的各个领域,涌现了一批具有时代精神、体现上海妇女独特风采的巾帼英雄,受到了社会的好评和称颂。 《上海妇女志》全面系统地反映了上海妇女的历史和现状,不仅丰富了地方志的文化宝库,有助于我们了解上海妇女的情况,而且对我们以史为鉴,正确认识马克思主义的妇女观,进一步贯彻男女平等的基本国策,推动上海妇女的发展和进步,将起到积极的作用。 妇女的进步是社会进步的标志。尊重妇女、保护妇女是文明社会应有的道德风尚。希望全社会都来关心妇女工作,切实维护妇女在国家政治、经济和社会生活中的平等地位和各项权益,为她们参加社会生产和各项社会活动创造更好的条件。各级妇联和妇女组织更要倾听妇女的呼声,尽力为她们排忧解难,教育和团结各界妇女,努力发扬“自尊、自信、自立、自强”精神,积极投身改革开放和现代化建设,充分施展聪明才智,进一步发挥“半边天”作用。

Shang Hai Zhen Dang 上海珍档2014Shanghai Municipal Archives 上海市档案馆

Located at the estuary of Yangtze River, Shanghai boasts vast hinterland and busy water transportation.Along with her mild weather and abundant products, Shanghai has a natural advantage of promotingcommerce and trade. Ever before it was opened as a treaty port in 1843, Shanghai had already become a hubfor costal trades. Since 1843, Shanghai turned into a harbor importing Western goods and culture; conflictand fusion between Chinese and Western cultures took place, leading to the fast development of Shanghai'smodern economy and culture, as well as the rapid rise of the city. Today, Shanghai has become so charmingthat the talents as well as technology from all over the world flocked to her, making her a modern metropoliswith great cultural and economic prosperity.

Shanghai Municipal Archives keeps millions of volumes of dossiers that have witnessed the history ofShanghai. This book extracts some of the most memorable stories from the ocean of files, so that the readerscan have a glimpse of how Shanghai has evolved across the centuries.

上海位于长江入海口,襟江带海,水运发达,腹地广阔,加之气候温和湿润,物产丰盛,利于以港兴商,以商兴市。开埠之前,上海作为滨海县城,是沿海贸易中转之地,航运业已然十分发达。1843年上海开埠之后,上海成为西方器物与文化的输入地,中西文化在此碰撞、交流、融合、发展,促进了上海近代经济的快速成长,近代思想文化的发展与近代城市的急速崛起。在历经西方近代文明与东方传统的冲突与融合之后,上海具有了极其独特、奇异的魅力,由此而形成极大的引力效应,吸纳、融汇了世界各地的人才、科技、文化,进而发展为文明发达的现代化国际大都市。上海市档案馆珍藏着数以百万卷计的记录着上海成长过程的珍贵档案,这些独特的档案见证了上海的发展史,也保留了这个城市的珍贵记忆。呈现在读者面前的这些馆藏档案,作为上海城市记忆的片断,可以从中窥见上海城市发展的足迹。

Shang Hai Gong Hui Lian He Hui 上海工会联合会1989Shanghai Municipal Archives 上海市档案馆

上海工会联合会,简称上海工联会。土地革命战争时期,上海各赤色工会的联合组织。1929年6月正式成立,徐锡根任工联党团书记。11月,中共江苏省委决定,徐炳根为工联会委员长,徐锡根为党团书记。1930年1月,李梅林为委员长。4月,徐炳根被捕,由徐锡根任工联会委员长兼党团书记。5月,徐锡根调任全国总工会党团书记,由沈先定(沈显庭)任工联会委员长,王克全兼任工联会党团书记。1931年1月,中共江苏省委停止王克全的工联会党团书记工作,由殷鉴代理。1932年初,徐锡根被捕叛变。3月,刘少奇任工联会党团书记。后由饶漱石、杨尚昆、袁孟超等接任。1933年9月以后,由于工联会不断遭到破坏,遂改为常委负责制。上海工联成立后,先后在上海的沪东、沪西、法南、闸北、沪中和浦东等区建立区工会联合会。1936年11月,全国总工会白区执行局传达中共驻共产国际代表团关于停止白区工会工作的意见。全总白区执行局、上海工会联合会和各产业总工会随即结束。

Nan Yang Xiong Di Yan Cao Gong Si Shi Liao 南洋兄弟烟草公司史料1958Zhong Guo Ke Xue Yuan Shang Hai Jing Ji Yan Jiu Suo 中国科学院上海经济研究所,Shang Hai She Hui Ke Xue Yuan Jing Ji Yan Jiu Suo 上海社会科学院经济研究所

In 1905, brothers Jian Zhaonan and Jian Yujie, both from Nanhai, Guangdong, founded a company in Hong Kong called "Nanyang Brothers Tobacco Company." Initially, they produced "White Crane" brand cigarettes, which gained popularity. However, the company soon faced setbacks and closed down due to competition from British and American tobacco companies. In 1909, they resumed operations and renamed the company "Guangdong Nanyang Brothers Tobacco Company," producing "Double Happiness" cigarettes. In 1916, they established a factory in Shanghai.

In 1918, the company was restructured as Nanyang Brothers Tobacco Corporation Limited, with its headquarters relocated to Shanghai. In 1919, they issued shares to the public, increasing their capital to 15 million Hong Kong dollars, with more than half of the shares owned by the Jian brothers. They set up branch factories in Shanghai, Hong Kong, Hankou, and other places, as well as tin foil factories, printing factories, canning factories, and tobacco curing factories in tobacco-producing areas. Their sales network expanded nationwide and throughout Southeast Asia. During the peak period of Nanyang Brothers, in 1923, Jian Zhaonan, aged 53, suddenly passed away, marking a turning point in the company's fortunes. By 1927, the actual capital reached nearly 20 million yuan. However, after 1927, under the dual pressure of foreign capital and bureaucratic capital, the company's business declined, experiencing consecutive losses from 1928 to 1930, and the capital dwindled to 11.25 million yuan. The company incurred a loss of 2.25 million yuan in 1928 and 3.2 million yuan in 1929. After the severe losses in the late 1920s, from 1930 to 1936, Nanyang's average annual profit was only 700,000 yuan, a fraction of the earlier years' annual profit of 4 million yuan. In 1936, the Jian family actively sought help from Song Ziwen, offering him 200,000 shares at a low price and giving him control over the 200,000 shares they held. In April 1937, Song Ziwen took over Nanyang Brothers Tobacco Company, assuming the position of Chairman. His brother, Song Ziliang, and Shanghai celebrity Du Yuesheng became directors of the company, while Jian Yujie was demoted to the fourth largest shareholder and took on the roles of director and design committee member, effectively assuming a passive position. For the next 12 years, the company was controlled by a bureaucratic group. At the time, Song Ziwen held both public and private positions and utilized funds from the Guangdong Bank, leading the book "Historical Materials of Nanyang Brothers Tobacco Company" published in September 1958 to consider it as "bureaucratic capitalism's plunder and control of national industry." Some argue that this is evidence of Song's corruption. After Song Ziwen took over, Nanyang Brothers managed to survive temporarily. After the July 7th Incident, Nanyang Brothers' factories in Shanghai were bombed by the Japanese, and almost the entire mainland market was lost.

After the establishment of the People's Republic of China, military control was implemented in the Shanghai, Chongqing, Hankou, and Guangzhou factories, confiscating bureaucratic capital and establishing temporary management committees. In February 1951, through a public-private joint venture agreement, Nanyang Brothers Tobacco Company was renamed Public-Private Joint Venture Nanyang Brothers Tobacco Company, with Jian Yujie serving as Vice Chairman and Jian Zhaonan's son, Jian Rilin, appointed as General Manager. By 1957, the company's profits had increased more than tenfold. The Shanghai, Hankou, Guangzhou, and Chongqing factories were successively transformed into separate accounting units and incorporated into the national plan. The Hong Kong factory retained the name Nanyang Brothers Tobacco Corporation Limited and continued to operate. In 1960, the Nanyang board of directors decided to entrust the Hong Kong factory to the General Audit Office of China Bank in Hong Kong. In 1965, the Hong Kong factory relocated from Wan Chai to San Po Kong, and in 1985, it moved again to Matau Kok.

In 1980, the ownership of "Nanyang" officially belonged to the Shanghai Municipal Government. In 1981, the Shanghai Municipal Government registered a wholly-owned subsidiary company called "Shanghai Industrial Company Limited" (the predecessor of "Shanghai Industrial Group") in Hong Kong, and "Nanyang" became a member company under "Shanghai Industrial." In 1987, it was officially transferred to Shanghai Industrial.

1905年由广东南海人简照南和简玉阶兄弟在香港创立,当时“南洋兄弟烟草公司”,最初生产“白鹤”牌香烟,销路一直上升,但不久被英美烟草公司打击下倒闭。1909年复业,改名为“广东南洋兄弟烟草公司”,生产“红双喜”香烟,1916年在上海设厂。

1918年改组为南洋兄弟烟草股份有限公司,总部改在上海。1919年向社会招股,资本增到1500万港元,股份的一半以上为简氏兄弟所有。先后在上海、香港、汉口等地设分厂,并开办锡纸厂、印刷厂和制罐厂,在烟叶产地设烤烟厂,销售机构遍布全国及东南亚各地。在南洋公司最辉煌的时候,1923年,53岁的简照南突然去世。这成为了南洋公司盛极而衰的转折点。1927年实有资本近2000万元。1927年以后,在外国资本与官僚资本双重压迫下,公司营业衰退,1928至1930年出现连续亏损,资本锐减到1125万元。1928年南洋亏损225万元,1929年亏损320万元。在20年代末的严重亏损后,1930至1936年间,南洋的年平均利润为70万元,仅为其早期年利400万元的一个零头。1936年简家主动与宋子文求援,愿以低价让给宋子文20万股,并把简家自己保留的20万股由宋掌握。1937年4月,宋子文入主南洋兄弟烟草公司,宋子文任董事长。其弟宋子良和沪上名人杜月笙成为南洋兄弟公司董事,简玉阶被降为第四大股东,任董事和设计委员,实际处于闲职地位。之后的12年,南洋公司一直为官僚集团把持和控制。宋子文当时的身份是公私要职一身兼,动用的是广东银行的资金,因此被出版于1958年9月的《南洋兄弟烟草公司史料》一书认为是"官僚资本主义对民族工业的掠夺和控制",也有观点认为这是宋“贪腐”的证据。宋子文入主以后,南洋公司暂时得以维持。"七七事变"后,南洋兄弟在上海的工厂被日本炸毁,大陆市场几乎全数沦丧。

中华人民共和国建立后,大陆内上海厂、重庆厂、汉口厂、广州厂实行了军事监管,没收官僚资本,成立了临时管理委员会。1951年2月,南洋公司通过公私合营协议,企业改名为公私合营南洋兄弟烟草公司,简玉阶出任副董事长,简照南之子简日林被聘为总经理。到1957年,公司盈利增长了10倍以上。上海、汉口、广州、重庆四厂先后改为独立核算单位,全部纳入国家计划。香港厂房仍保留南洋兄弟烟草股份有限公司名称,继续经营,1960年“南洋”董事会决定,委托中国银行驻香港总稽核室代管其香港厂。1965年,香港厂房由湾仔迁往新蒲岗,1985年再迁往马头角。

1980年,“南洋”在产权关系上正式归属上海市政府。1981年,上海市政府在香港注册设立了全资窗口公司“上海实业有限公司”(“上海实业集团”的前身),“南洋”成为“上实”旗下的成员企业。1987年,正式让给上海实业。

Shanghai zhi nan 上海指南 A Chinese Directory of the Port1930
Shang Hai Jiao Xian Kang Ri Wu Zhuang Dou Zheng Shi Liao Hui Bian 上海郊县抗日斗争史料汇编1986Zhong Gong Shang Hai Shi Wei Dang Shi Zi Liao Zheng Ji Wei Yuan Hui 中共上海市委党史资料征集委员会

On August 13, 1937, the Battle of Shanghai erupted, marking the beginning of the Chinese resistance against Japanese aggression. The Chinese Communist Party (CCP) led the people of Shanghai in their anti-Japanese and national salvation movement, actively supporting the Nationalist Party's (Kuomintang) war efforts. After the fall of Shanghai, the CCP maintained and expanded its presence in Shanghai, engaging in a wide range of activities aimed at building a united front against the Japanese occupation. They rallied individuals from all walks of life to sustain a prolonged resistance against the Japanese while also dispatching forces to the regions near Shanghai, such as Jiangnan and Jiangbei, to carry out armed struggles in the enemy-occupied territories.

In the rural areas surrounding Shanghai, which were tightly controlled by Japanese puppet authorities, the CCP initiated and organized guerrilla warfare against the Japanese starting in 1938. They gradually established several guerrilla bases over the course of eight years, resembling steel daggers driven into the heart of the enemy. These guerrilla forces, in collaboration with the New Fourth Army's eastward expeditionary units, played a vital role in commanding and striking against Japanese puppet forces, supporting resistance bases in the hinterlands of central China and eastern Zhejiang, and coordinating with the urban population's anti-Japanese and national salvation movement. The Shanghai suburban guerrilla warfare was an integral aspect of the broader anti-Japanese struggle in Shanghai and a critical component of the extensive battlefield in the eastern region of China.

This book compiles the history of the CCP-led resistance in Shanghai's suburbs, recounting the arduous and remarkable eight-year struggle, emphasizing the hard-fought victories that provide profound inspiration. The guerrilla warfare in Shanghai's suburbs unfolded under extremely challenging and complex circumstances. The CCP-led anti-Japanese guerrilla forces upheld the banner of national liberation, implemented comprehensive political strategies for the war effort, and actively engaged and armed the masses. They steadfastly resisted Japanese aggression and opposed surrender, representing the strong patriotic desire of the suburban population to avoid becoming slaves of a foreign invader. Thus, the guerrilla forces, distinct from local armed factions, possessed the broadest popular support. The collaboration between the armed forces and the people was the key to success in the eight-year-long resistance, relying on the valiant guerrilla fighters and the heroic people who shielded and supported the guerrilla warfare.

The CCP-led guerrilla forces diligently followed the policy of "develop progressive forces, win over middle-of-the-road forces, isolate stubborn reactionary forces." They extensively worked on building a united front against the Japanese occupation, rallying and winning over social elites and enlightened gentry, reforming local forces affiliated with various factions of the Nationalist Party, and converting patriotic soldiers from the puppet regime. They established democratic anti-Japanese governments, achieving considerable success. Depending on the local conditions and the balance of power between friend and foe, the guerrilla forces adopted diverse and flexible strategies, such as utilizing legal means and conducting open struggles or engaging in covert operations deep within enemy territory. All of these strategies aimed at gaining allies, isolating enemies, and strengthening their own position. The CCP's united front work was an essential weapon that allowed the suburban guerrilla warfare to endure, grow, and eventually triumph in the face of the strict control and complexity of the enemy-occupied territories.

The CCP-led suburban guerrilla warfare underwent a challenging and convoluted process of development, contraction, and subsequent expansion leading to victory. In the early stages of the resistance, the CCP tirelessly established and developed secret party organizations in the suburban areas, forming a strong leadership core that laid the organizational foundation for creating anti-Japanese armed forces and launching mass movements. During the long and difficult phase of anti“Combing-Out” struggles, the CCP made the correct decision to preserve their core strength and relocate their main forces. Local party organizations at all levels maintained prolonged concealment in their original locations, rallied the masses, accumulated strength, and conducted covert operations. They not only steadfastly preserved and expanded the anti-Japanese front in the suburbs but also provided vital support to the struggles in the anti-Japanese bases in southern Jiangsu, central Jiangsu, northern Jiangsu, and eastern Zhejiang. The CCP's correct leadership was the fundamental guarantee of victory in the struggle.

The success of the suburban anti-Japanese guerrilla warfare in Shanghai was also a result of the close cooperation and mutual support between urban and rural areas. From the beginning of the suburban armed resistance, the underground CCP in Shanghai adhered to the central directives and sent key party members and material support to aid the suburban guerrilla warfare. The valiant struggle of the suburban population and their continuous victories greatly boosted the confidence of the urban population, reaffirming the belief in ultimate victory. The cooperation and mutual support between urban and rural areas, the steadfast commitment to the struggle, were indispensable conditions for achieving the final victory of the resistance.

The compilation and publication of this book are meaningful and necessary. Due to the war conditions of the past, historical records of the Shanghai suburban anti-Japanese guerrilla warfare have not been fully preserved, and without timely collection and organization, numerous remarkable achievements and valuable historical experiences that are still relevant today might be lost. Comrades Zhang Yiyu, Weng Sanxin, and Li Fei, in a three-year effort, conducted interviews with nearly a hundred veteran comrades, examined relevant archives and materials, and collaborated with party history collectors from various counties in the Shanghai suburbs and sister provinces and counties. They collected a vast amount of information, which was then sorted, verified, and researched to compile this comprehensive and reliable historical record. This undoubtedly constitutes a valuable contribution to accurately and thoroughly document party history and provides a systematic historical reference for the veterans who participated in the struggle and researchers of party history.

Finally, as this book is being released, we respectfully commemorate the martyrs who valiantly sacrificed their lives in the fight against Japanese aggression. We extend our profound respect to the veteran comrades and soldiers who led and participated in the suburban anti-Japanese guerrilla warfare. Their heroic achievements will forever be recorded in the annals of the people's revolutionary struggle.

一九三七年八月十三日,上海抗战爆发。中国共产党领导了上海人民的抗日救亡运动,积极支援国民党军队的抗战。上海沦陷后,中国共产党一面保持和发展着上海群众运动的阵地,广泛开展抗日民族统一战线工作,团结各阶层人士进行持久的抗日斗争,另一面输送力量到上海附近的江南、江北一带开展敌后武装斗争。 在日伪反动统治严密控制的上海郊县农村,中共从一九三八年起就积极发动和组织抗日游击战争,并逐步建立起若干游击根据地,经过历时八年的艰苦斗争,犹如一把把钢刀插在敌人的心脏里。郊县的抗日武装与新四军东进部队相结合,在率制和打击日伪力量,支援华中、浙东敌后抗日根据地和配合上海城市人民抗日救亡运动等方面,均起到了重要的作用。上海郊县抗日游击战争是上海人民抗日斗争的重要方面,也是华东广大敌后战场的重要组成部分。 1 .本书汇集了党领导的上海郊县抗日武装斗争始末,回顾八年艰苦卓绝的战斗历程,深感胜利来之不易,给人以深刻启迪。 上海郊县的抗日武装斗争是在极端困难和复杂的环境中进行的。党领导的抗日游击队高举民族解放战争的旗帜,实行全面抗战的政治主张,广泛发动群众、武装群众,坚持抗日,反对投降,代表着郊县广大群众不愿做亡国奴的强烈爱国愿望。因此,我们的游击队,有别于任何派系组织的地方武装,拥有最广泛的群众基础。兵民是胜利之本,八年抗战得以坚持,依靠着英勇的游击队指战员,也依靠着掩护和支援游击战争的英雄人民。 中共领导的抗日游击队,认真贯彻“发展进步势力,争取中间势力,孤立顽固势力”的方针,广泛开展抗日民族统一战线工作,团结、争取社会名流、开明士绅,争取改造国民党各派系的地方部队,策反伪军中具有爱国心的官兵,建立三三制抗日民主政权,均取得较大成绩。根据当地当时形势的变化和敌我力量的对比,游击武装在党的领导下,又采取了灵活多样的斗争策略,如利用合法,进行公开的斗争;深入敌营,坚持隐蔽斗争等等。这些都服务于争取同盟者,孤立敌人,壮大自己。党的统战工作是郊县抗日武装在敌伪势力严密控制、错综复杂的敌占区能够长期生存、发展、壮大,最终克敌制胜的重要法宝。 中共领导的郊县抗日武装斗争经历了发展、收缩、再发展,直至胜利的艰难曲折过程。抗战初期,党就开始坚持不懈地秘密建立和发展郊县各级党组织,形成坚强的领导核心,为创建抗日武装,莲勃开展群众运动莫定了组织基础。在漫长而艰苦的反清乡斗争阶段,党又正确地决定,为保存有生力量,主力部队转移,各级地方党组织坚持原地长期埋伏,团结群众,积蓄力量,开展隐蔽斗争。既出色地坚持和发展了郊区抗日阵地,又支援了苏南、苏中、苏北和浙东抗日根据地的斗争,为迎接抗战胜利作出了可贵的贡献。党的正确领导,是斗争胜利的根本保证。 上海郊县抗日武装斗争的成功,也是城市和农村紧密配合,互相支援的成果。从上海郊县武装斗争一开始,上海地下党就遵循中央指示,输送了党的骨干力量和物资支援郊县武装斗争,郊县人民的英勇斗争和不断取得的胜利,又极大地鼓舞了城市人民抗战必胜的信心。城乡配合,互相支援,坚持斗争,也为抗战取得最终胜利,提供了必不可少的条件。 本书的编纂和出版是一项很有意义和必要的工作。由于过去的战争环境,上海郊县抗日武装斗争的史料,无法完整地保存至今,如不及时搜集、整理,大量可歌可颂的战斗业绩和至今仍值得借鉴的历史经验,就有湮没的可能。张义渔、翁三新、李飞三位同志化了三年时间,走访了近百位老同志,查阅了有关档案和资料,并与市郊各县和兄弟省、县的党史征集工作者协作,收集了大量资料,经整理、查核、研究,汇编成这本较为完整可信的史料书。这无疑为立准、立好党史,做了件有益的工作,也为参加当年斗争的老同志和党史研究工作者,提供较为系统的历史资料。 最后,值此出版本书之际,谨向在这场抗击日本侵略者斗争中英勇牺牲的烈士,致以深切的悼念。向当年领导和参加过郊县抗日游击战争的老同志、老战士致以崇高的敬意。他们的英勇业绩,将永远载入人民革命斗争的史册。

Shang Hai Xiao Dao Hui Qi Yi Shi Liao Hui Bian 上海小刀会起义史料汇编1980The History Institution of Shanghai Academy of Social Science 上海社会科学院历史研究所

We have collected and selected historical materials related to the Small Swords Society(Xiao Dao Hui) Uprising. Apart from revolutionary literature, the majority of these materials consist of archives, newspapers, private writings, and notes from the reactionary rule of the Qing Dynasty and imperialist forces. These materials have significant historical value, and we have compiled them for researchers' reference. The editing methods we have adopted are as follows:

  1. The collected materials, both in Chinese and foreign languages, are complex in content and form. To preserve the original documents, we generally refrain from cutting or fragmenting them. The materials are divided into six sections based on their nature. To provide readers with a comprehensive understanding of the history of the Small Swords Society Uprising, we have prepared two introductory pieces: "Overview of the Small Swords Society Uprising" and "Timeline of Major Events in the Small Swords Society Uprising." These sections are accompanied by revolutionary artifacts, photographs, and maps, placed at the beginning of the compilation.

  2. The materials in this compilation are divided into six sections: the first section contains literature on the Small Swords Society, the second section consists of records and reports on the uprising and its battles in Shanghai, the third section comprises archival materials on the Qing Dynasty's feudal ruling class suppressing  the Small Swords Society Uprising, the fourth section includes archives and records of foreign invaders' interference in the Small Swords Society Uprising, the fifth section contains other relevant historical materials on the uprising, and the sixth section comprises materials on the uprisings of the people in the counties near Shanghai, along with related materials documenting the response from Ningbo, Zhejiang.

  3. Before each section, the editors have provided commentary to explain the content, nature, and historical value of the included materials, allowing readers to gain a clear understanding of each section.

  4. Under each material's title, the editors have provided an evaluation to help readers understand the source, version, authors' perspectives, the historical value of the work, and any inaccuracies it may contain.

  5. The titles of the materials are generally preserved without modification. Only a few highly reactionary titles that defame the revolution and are intolerable have been modified, with the original titles still included as annotations after the respective materials.

  6. With regards to the foreign language materials in this compilation, the majority have been translated and selected by us. The translated names of individuals and places strive to match those already published. When using older translations from various books, we have made uniform changes to names of individuals and places while leaving the rest unchanged. A table providing name translations is included at the end. The most challenging to translate are the revolutionary documents. We have referenced the Chinese style of the Small Swords Society's proclamations to restore their original appearance as much as possible. However, due to significant differences between the Chinese literary style and English writing conventions, we can only strive for approximation.

  7. The Chinese materials included in this compilation have undergone collation using different versions. We have selected the better versions and supplemented them using other editions. For example, "The Origins and Development of Westernization" was chosen over "The Qing Veritable Records" due to the former's earlier publication date. Similarly, for revolutionary documents of the Small Swords Society with multiple versions, the best version was chosen as the base text, with other versions used for supplementation and accompanied by explanations.

  8. The materials related to the Shanghai Xidao Club Uprising in the North China Herald amount to approximately 160,000 words. Among them are original revolutionary documents that have been lost, detailed reports on the battles, historical records of imperialist occupation of customs and concessions, as well as special features on the Qing Dynasty's feudal rule compromising and surrendering. Based on the nature of these materials, they have been categorized and included in the respective sections. The discovery of revolutionary documents provides new evidence for studying the political situation of the Small Swords Society and their relationship with the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom. Although the continuous reports on the battles contain the perspective of the aggressors, they are still detailed historical materials of the revolutionary war. Therefore, we have compiled these reports for readers' reference.

  9. The sources and origins of the cultural relics' images included in this compilation are indicated. Among them, the photos of Jiading were taken during our own investigation, and the maps were drawn by us.

  10. We are currently lacking investigative materials on the Small Swords Society Uprising. We have only conducted preliminary investigations in Jiading. We hope comrades from Shanghai, Jiading, Qingpu, Baoshan, Nanhui, Chuansha, and other counties can assist us in order to supplement the investigative materials in the future.

  11. This compilation of historical materials is a thematic collection aimed at organizing the history of the Shanghai people's struggles and supplementing the historical materials of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom. Due to the limited collection time and insufficient in-depth work, there may inevitably be omissions and errors

我们搜集和选译的有关上海小刀会起义历史资料,除革命文献外,绝大部份是清朝反动统治和帝国主义的档案、报刊、私人论著、笔记等。这些资料都有一定的历史资料价值,我们把这些资料汇编起来,提供研究者参考。所采用的编辑方法说明如下:

(一)本编所收各种中外文资料,内容和形式均极为复杂,为保存原件,一般地不加删削或割裂,依照资料的性质分为六个部份。为使读者对上海小刀会起义的历史有一个概括的认识,编写“上海小刀会起义综叙”和“上海小刀会起义大事表”两种,并附以革命文物图片和地图,列入卷首。

(二)本编资料共分六部份:第一部份为小刀会起义文献,

第二部份为上海小刀会起义期间的记载和战况报道,第三部份为清朝封建统治阶级镇压上海小刀会起义的档案史料,第四部份为外国侵略者干涉上海小刀会起义的档案和记载,第五部份为其他有关上海小刀会起义的史料,第六部份为上海附近各县人民起义史料,并附浙江宁波人民起义响应史料。

(三)本编每一部份之前,均加上编者的按语,说明这一部份资料的内容、性质及其史料价值,使读者对每一部份资料得到明确的认识。

(四)本编在每一种资料标题之下,均加上编者的评介,使读者对于文件的来源、版本、作者的立场观点、作品的史料价值和它的谬误之处,都能得到一个明确的认识。

(五)本编对每一资料的标题,一般地均保持原状,不加删改;只有个别极为反动的标题,诬蔑革命而不可容忍者,酌予修改,仍将原标题附注于该资料后面。

(六)本编所收外文资料,除少数采用前人译本外,绝大部份是我们选译的,所译的人名地名力求与已经出版者相同,至采用旧译各书,除将人名、地名等予以统一外,其余不加改动。并于编末附以译名对照表。最难译的是革命文献,我们参考上海小刀会文告的中文风格,力求恢复本来面目,终因中国文言体与英文文字风格出入很大,只能力求其近似。

(七)本编所收中文资料,曾用不同版本加以校勘,选取较好的版本,另用其他版本校补。例如“筹办夷务始末”比“清实录”成书较早,凡两书互见者,采用“始末”。又如上海小刀会的革命文献,有不同版本的,采用最好的为底本,另用他本校补,并附注说明。

(八)“北华捷报”所载有关上海小刀会起义的资料,共约十六万字。其中有原件已失传的革命文献,有比较详晰的战况报道,有帝国主义侵占海关和租界的史料,亦有清朝封建统治妥协投降的特写。按其资料性质,分别编入各个部份,特别是革命文献的发现,对于研究上海小刀会的政治情况以及他们对太平军的关系可以找到新的证明,关于战况的连续报道,虽然含有侵略者的观点,却是较详细的革命战争史料,因此,把这一批报道汇编起来,供读者们参考。

(九)本编所采用的文物图片,均注明来源和出处。其中嘉定的照片是我们自己调查时拍摄的,地图也是我们草绘的。(十)本编尚缺对上海小刀会起义的调查资料,我们仅在嘉定进行过初步调查,希望上海、嘉定、青浦、宝山、南汇、川沙各县的同志们给以帮助,以便将来能够补充一些调查资料。

(十一)本编的历史资料是为整理上海人民斗争历史和补充太平天国历史资料而编成的一种专题史料汇编,因搜集时间较短,工作不够深入,难免有疏漏错误之处,希望读者予以指正。

 

   
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